Track 4: Pharmacogenomic
What exactly is pharmacogenomic?
Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes influence an individual's drug response. This field combines the study of genes and their functions with the science of pharmaceuticals to develop safe, effective treatments that may be administered based on an individual's genetic profile.
There are numerous "one-size-fits-all" drugs on the market today, but they do not all act in the same way. It may be difficult to predict who will respond well to a treatment, who will not respond at all, and who will experience significant side effects (called adverse drug reactions). In the United States, adverse drug reactions are a major cause of hospitalizations and deaths.
Scientists are learning how genetic variations affect how the body responds to medications. These genetic variations will be used to assess which dose will help prevent adverse drug reactions and whether a given individual will benefit from a particular treatment. Conditions that alter a person's response to specific medications include clopidogrel resistance, warfarin sensitivity, warfarin resistance, malignant hyperthermia, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, and thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency.
The field of pharmacogenomics is evolving, and clinical research are testing new therapeutic techniques. In the future, pharmacogenomics will be utilised to develop personalised pharmaceuticals to treat a number of health conditions, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and asthma.
What is the process of pharmacogenomics?
Depending on how you take the drug and where it acts in your body, drugs can interact with your body in a variety of ways. Your body needs to process a drug after you ingest it in order to deliver it to the desired location. Your DNA can influence several stages of this process, which will impact how you react to the medicine. These interactions involve, to name a few
Receptors for drugs. Some medications function well only when they can bind to receptors, which are proteins found on the surface of cells. Your DNA defines the types and numbers of receptors you have, which can impact how you react to a medicine. You might require a different medicine or a greater or lower dosage than the majority of people.
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What impact does pharmacogenomics have on medication development, design, and prescribing recommendations?
In the US, drug safety is monitored by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Around 200 drugs currently have pharmacogenomic information on their labels. By offering instructions on dosage, potential adverse effects, or differences in effectiveness for people with particular gene variants, this information can assist doctors in customising medicine prescriptions for individual patients.
Pharmacogenomics is also being used by pharmaceutical corporations to create and sell medications for patients with particular genetic profiles.
Medicine companies may be able to accelerate the development of a drug and enhance its therapeutic benefit by only testing it in patients who are likely to benefit from it.
Additionally, if researchers are able to pinpoint genes that result in harmful side effects, doctors might only recommend those medications to those who do not possess those genes. This would make it possible for some persons to get potentially life-saving medications that might otherwise be prohibited because they present a risk to others.
What impact does pharmacogenomics have on medical care?
Currently, doctors mostly base prescription recommendations on a patient's age, weight, sex, liver function, and renal function. Some medications include gene mutations that influence how people react, according to studies. In these situations, medical professionals can decide which drug and dosage is ideal for each patient.
Additionally, understanding how patients react to drugs aids in identifying the many ailments that they are suffering from.
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Limitations of pharmacogenomic assays at this time
Pharmacogenomic testing's current drawbacks include:
You cannot predict how you will react to every medication with a single pharmacogenomic test. Your medical team may request a pharmacogenomics panel, which examines several genes to determine how your body metabolises specific medications.
Not all drugs are eligible for pharmacogenomic testing. Your medical team decides if you need to have a pharmacogenomic test before starting a particular treatment because these tests are only accessible for specific drugs.
Pharmacogenomic assays for aspirin do not yet exist.